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Yıllık arşiv 2018

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hayal bulutları

Paris 12 Ocak 2000

 

Champs-Elysée’de şehrin gösterişli otellerinden birinin Seine Nehri’ne bakan 57 numaralı odasında beş kişi artık tartışmaktan yorulmuş, odanın ortasındaki sehpanın üzerinde bulunan oldukça eski bir kitaba bakmaktadır.

Fatima’nın üçüncü sırrının peşinde kayıp bir mezarı arayan ve bununla Hristiyan itikadını değiştireceğini uman bir rahip: John, ahşap sandalyede oturmaktadır. Ahit Sandığı’nı arayan gizli bir tarikatın lideri olan Abraham ile yardımcısı Ian onun yanında ayakta durmaktadır. Koltukta oturan iki kişiden biri olan Mustafa Sacit, İmparator Heraklius’un Hz. Peygamber’in vefatından sonra onun birkaç arkadaşına gösterdiği iddia edilen Hz. Peygamber’in gizli resminin peşindedir. Yanındaki kişi ise Mustafa’nın en güvendiği arkadaşlarından biri olan yapımcı Tarık Borlu’dur.

Hepsini burada buluşturan neden ise aradıklarının içinde olabileceğini düşündükleri fakat girmeye de cesaret edemedikleri bir mağara. Birinin buraya girerek içinde ne olduğunu öğrenmesi gerekmektedir.

Vakit gece yarısını çoktan geçmişti. Üzerlerine gece gibi çöken sessizliği Tarık Borlu bozdu:

“Ben” dedi. “Sizin için bu işi yapacak birini biliyorum.”

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Erdemli Şehir Projesi

Buna “felsefe köyü projesi” de diyebiliriz. Bir kampüs hayal ediyorum. İçinde ilk aşamada yüz bin kitap kapasiteli sadece felsefeyle ilgili kitapların bulunduğu bir kütüphane, filozofların balmumu heykelleri vs bulunan bir sanat galerisi, filozoflara ait eşya ve yazıların sergilendiği bir müze, konferans salonları, cafe ve yemekhane, misafirhane, yayınevi ve yönetim binası bulunmaktadır.

Burada sürekli etkinlikler düzenlenir. 6 aylık hakemli bir dergi ve süresiz yayınlar çıkarılır.

Gelen misafirlere isteğe bağlı olarak girişte bir mikrofon ve bir kulaklık verilir. Kulaklıkta en yakın mikrofondaki ses istenilen başka bir dile anında çevrilir. Misafirler hangi milletten olursa olsun burada iletişimde sıkıntı yaşanmaz.

Erdemli şehir, kütüphane dâhil 7 gün 24 saat açıktır.

Bu liste hayal gücü nispetinde uzatılabilir. İhtiyacımız olan tek şey hayallerin sahiplenilmesi. Ha bir de Karadenizli bir müteahhit.

 

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“Kur’an’a Yabancılaşma Süreci” adlı kitabın 1. bölümüne eleştiri

 

Yazar bölüme şu cümlelerle başlıyor:

Kader problemi insanın insan olmasından kaynaklanan bir mesele olup insanlığın sorunudur.”

Bu giriş, okuyucuyu hayal kırıklığına uğratma pahasına fazla abartılmış, kendisinde insanlıkla ilgili büyük bir konuyu aydınlattığı duygusu yaratacak bir alt yapı hazırlığı içinde olduğu izlenimi vermektedir. Yazı şöyle devam ediyor:

İnanan inanmayan birçok düşünür bu konuyla ilgilenmiş

İnanandan ve inanmayandan ne kastedildiği açık değil. Eğer kastedilen Tanrı ise hangi inanmayan düşünürün kaderi bir problem olarak incelediğinin örnekleri verilmelidir.

Yazar insanın gayesinin Allah tarafından tespit edildiğini ve bunu gerçekleştirmeyi Allah’ın insana bıraktığını söylüyor. Fakat bu gayenin ne olduğunu söylemiyor. Yazar bize bir din anlayışı dayatıyor gibidir. Şu cümlelerin hemen devamında ise Allah’ın insanı yeryüzünde görevlendirdiği söyleniyor. Gayenin (bu gaye her neyse) gerçekleştirilmesinin insana bırakılmasıyla onun bir görevli olduğunu nasıl bağdaştıracağız. İnsan bu görevi kabul edip etmememde hür müdür?

Yazarın kaderle ilgili hadisleri eleştirisine katıldığımızı belirtmeliyiz. Yazıda konunun tarihi süreçte arka planında Emevilerin yaptığı zulümlere bir savunma olmak üzere kaderciliği ve kadere teslimiyeti bir politikaya dönüştürmüş olmalarından bahsedilmektedir.

  1. nolu nipnotta şöyle deniliyor:

İnsana dünyada verilen belli bir süre vardır. Bu süre dolmadan insan kendi hatası veya başkalarının kusuru sebebiyle ölebilir.”

Bu süre dolmadan insan nasıl ölmektedir? O zaman insana niye belli bir süre veriliyor? Yazar yazıyı aceleye getirmiş görünüyor.

Yazar ilerleyen satırlarda Kur’an’ın yorumlanabilmesi ve anlaşılabilmesi için bize 5 maddelik bir çerçeve çizmektedir. (s.27) Bir önceki sayfada “Kur’an’ı şartsız okumak lazımdır” diyen yazarın bu dayatmacı tavrındaki ısrarını anlamak mümkün değildir. İnsanın düşüncesine çizilen sınırlardan yakınan yazarın kendisinin de böyle bir sınır çizmesi ironiktir.

Yazar kader problemini çözmek için bize bir yol haritası sunmaktadır:

Kader problemine çözüm bulmak için Allah’ın ilminden değil, insan sorumluluğundan ve dolayısıyla insan hürriyetinden hareket etmek gerekmektedir.” (s. 29)

Aynı sayfada kaderin tanımı da şu şeklide veriliyor: “Kader, kâinattaki ilahî kanunlardır.

Kaderin tanımında ilahî olan atıf yapılacak ama çözüm için insandan hareket edilecek. Bu izah çok anlaşılabilir görünmüyor.

Yazar Muhammed İkbal’i referans göstererek ezelde tayin ve tespitin sadece insan hürriyetini değil ilahî faaliyet imkânını da ortadan kaldırdığını söylemektedir ki (s. 35) burada ezeli bilginin mahiyeti ile insan bilgisinin mahiyeti birbirine karıştırılmaktadır.

Yazar 38. sayfada çok ilginç bir yorum yapmaktadır:

Davranışlarında hür bir varlık yaratmak, davranışları da programlı robot bir varlık yaratmaktan daha zor olsa gerektir. Bundan dolayı kendi fiilini yaratacak kulu yaratmak ilahi kudretin şanına daha layıktır.”

Allah’ın yaratması için zor ve kolay gibi acziyet ifade eden değerlendirmeler yapmayı hiç olmazsa mutedil bir Müslümanın doğru bulmayacağını belirtmeliyiz.

Aynı sayfada Allah’ın neden sadece insana hürriyet tanıdığı sorusunu bunun Mutlak Varlığın fiiliyle ilgili olduğu için insanın cevaplandıramayacağı söyleniyor. O zaman burada yazar Allah’ın insanı görevlendirmesinin ya da insana gaye tespit etmesinin de Mutlak Varlığın fiili olduğunu dolayısıyla bunları nasıl izah ettiğini açıklamak zorundadır.

 

 

 

omer ileomer

sabır

 

 

Peyami Safa şöyle der: “Suçlamak anlamaktan daha kolaydır. Anlarsan değişmen gerekir.” Biz buna bir de pes etmeyi ve vazgeçmeyi ekleyelim. Onun için, Kur’an’ın diliyle sabırlı 20 kişi 200 kişiye bedeldir. Çünkü diğerleri anlamayan bir kavimdir. Zor olan mücadele ve mücahadedir. İnsanlar sabretmekle sınanacak ve sabredenler müjdelenecek. Mümin, sabır ve namazla Allah’tan yardım isteyen kişidir. Onun vasfı da, tavsiyesi de sabırdır.

Mümin, Hakkı ve hakikati müdafaada kararlı ve dirençli, sabırda yarışan, sırtını Allah’a yaslamış, zillete boyun eğmemiş insandır. Namaz, gözünün nuru, sadaka burhanı, sabır da aydınlığı olmuştur.

Peygamber karanlıkla mücadele eden insandır. Lut’a, yola gece çıkması emredildi. Kimse arkada kalmamalıydı. Çünkü vaat edilen zaman sabahtı. Sabaha ulaşmak için yolda sebat, zorlukla mücadele ve meşakkate sabır lazımdı. Sabah yakın değil miydi?

Bir gün Habbab Hz. Peygamber’e geldi, kim bilir kaç dağlamadan kalan, sırtındaki yara izlerini gösterdi. “Hala” dedi “dua etmeyecek misin?” Hz. Peygamber sabrı tavsiye etti. Bilal’e, Yasir’e Sümeyye’ye, Ebu Cendel’e ve daha nicesine yaptığı gibi. “Sizden önceki ümmetler içinde öyleleri vardı ki demir taraklarla etleri kemiklerinden ayrılır, yine de dinlerinden dönmezlerdi.”

Açlığı oruç, sevgiyi aşk, dileği dua yapan sabırdır. Acıya sabredilince adına metanet, insana sabredilince adına hoşgörü denilir.

Sabır, kınayanın kınamasından korkmamak, tümseklerden yılmamak, asla umutsuzluğa kapılmamak ve karanlığa boyun eğmemektir. Müminin karakteri, eyleme dönüşen bir iman, yenilgide meydan okuyan bir irade, şaşkınlık ve telaşı yok eden ruhunun bir kuvveti olarak azimdir. Bütün bunlarla sabır da Hak üzere sabitkadem olmaktır.

 

Gazali sabrı, “İnancın bencil istek ve tutkulara karşı koyması” diye tanımlar. Bu anlamda o, sabrın sadece insana mahsus bir erdem olduğunu belirtmiştir.

Ragıp el-İsfahani ise daha geniş bir tanım yapmıştır: “Acıya katlanma, sıkıntıya göğüs germe, Allah’a tevekkül ederek ondan gelen sıkıntılara katlanma, insanın kendisini aklın ve dinin yapılmasını gerekli gördüğü işleri yapmaya veya yapılmasını yasakladığı davranışlardan uzak durmaya zorlaması, kişinin hayra ulaşma yolunda gösterdiği dirençtir.”

Taberi’ye göre nefsi sevdiği şeylerden alıkoymak, heva ve hevesinden el çektirmektir. Bu manada Ramazan’a da ‘sabır ayı’ denmiştir.

Seyyid Kutup, sabrı, “her türlü sıkıntıya karşı direnebilmek” olarak açıklarken burada kastettiği sıkıntının Hakka gösterilen saygının bir sonucu olarak her türlü makam, mevki, liderlik ve menfaatten vazgeçmek olduğunu belirtir.

Sabır, Hz. Peygamber’in hadisine istinaden Allah’ın kendini tavsif ettiği bir vasıftır. Zira o şöyle buyurmuştur: “İşittiği kötü bir söz karşısında hiç kimse Allah’tan daha sabırlı değildir. Çünkü insanlar ona oğul isnat ederler de o insanlara afiyet ve rızık vermeye devam eder.”

Ayette, sabredenler hesapsız bir mükâfat vaadiyle taltif edilmiştir. Bu anlamda ona benzer bir erdem de bulunmaz.

Hz. Ali şöyle demiştir: “Şeri emirler gereğince amel etmek üzere sabretmek, insan vücudunda başa benzer ki o olmadan ceset tam olmaz.”